From Middle English gage, gaugen, from Anglo-Norman, Old Northern French gauger (compare Modern French jauger from Old French jaugier), from gauge (“gauging rod”), from Frankish *galga (“measuring rod, pole”), from Proto-Germanic *galgô (“pole, stake, cross”), from Proto-Indo-European *ǵʰAlgʰ-, *ǵʰAlg- (“perch, long switch”). Cognate with Old High German galgo, Old Frisian galga, Old English ġealga (“cross-beam, gallows”), Old Norse galgi (“cross-beam, gallows”), Old Norse gelgja (“pole, perch”).
- A measure; a standard of measure; an instrument to determine dimensions, distance, or capacity; a standard
- An act of measuring.
- Any instrument for ascertaining or regulating the level, state, dimensions or forms of things
- A thickness of sheet metal or wire designated by any of several numbering schemes.
- (rail transport) The distance between the rails of a railway.
- (mathematics, analysis) A semi-norm; a function that assigns a non-negative size to all vectors in a vector space.
- (knitting) The number of stitches per inch, centimetre, or other unit of distance.
- (nautical) Relative positions of two or more vessels with reference to the wind.
- A vessel has the weather of another when on the windward side of it, and the lee when on the lee side of it.
- (nautical) The depth to which a vessel sinks in the water.
- (plastering) The quantity of plaster of Paris used with common plaster to make it set more quickly.
- That part of a shingle, slate, or tile, which is exposed to the weather, when laid; also, one course of such shingles, slates, or tiles.
- (firearms) A unit of measurement which describes how many spheres of bore diameter of a shotgun can be had from one pound of lead; 12 gauge is roughly equivalent to .75 caliber.
- (slang, by extension) A shotgun (synecdoche for 12 gauge shotgun, the most common chambering for combat and hunting shotguns).
- A tunnel-like ear piercing consisting of a hollow ring embedded in the lobe.
gauge was also found in the following language(s): Old French